LIFE IN CHRIST
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
"YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND"
THE FIRST COMMANDMENT
- I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them.3
It is written: "You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve."4
"YOU SHALL WORSHIP THE LORD YOUR GOD AND HIM ONLY SHALL YOU SERVE"
God makes himself known by recalling his all-powerful loving, and liberating action in the history of the one he addresses: "I brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." The first word contains the first commandment of the Law: "You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve him.
. . . You shall not go как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода other gods."5 God's first call and just demand is that man accept him and worship him.
The one and true God first как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода his glory to Israel.6 The revelation of the vocation and truth of man is linked to the revelation of God.
Man's vocation is to make God manifest by acting in conformity with his creation "in the image and likeness of God":
- There will never be another God, Trypho, and there has been no other since the world began . . . than he who made and ordered the universe. We do not think that our God is different from yours.
He is the same who brought your fathers out of Egypt "by his powerful hand and his outstretched arm." We do not place our hope in some other god, for there is none, как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода in the same God as you do: the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.7
"The first commandment embraces faith, hope, and charity. When we say 'God' we confess a constant, unchangeable being, always the same, faithful and just, without any evil. It follows that we must necessarily accept his words and have complete faith in him and acknowledge his authority.
He is almighty, merciful, and infinitely beneficent. Who could not place all hope in him? Who could not love him when contemplating the treasures of goodness and love he как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода poured out как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода us? Hence the formula God employs in the Scripture at the beginning and end of his commandments: 'I am the LORD.'"8
Our moral life has its source in faith in God who reveals как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода love to us.
St. Paul speaks of the "obedience of faith"9 as our first obligation. He shows that "ignorance of God" is the principle and explanation of all moral deviations.10 Our duty toward God is to believe in him and to bear witness to him.
The first commandment requires us to nourish and protect our faith with prudence and vigilance, and to reject как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода that is opposed to it.
There are various ways of sinning against faith:
Voluntary doubt about the faith disregards or refuses to hold as true what God has revealed and the Church proposes for belief.
Involuntary doubt refers to hesitation in believing, difficulty in overcoming objections connected with the faith, or also anxiety aroused by its obscurity.
If deliberately cultivated doubt can lead to spiritual blindness.
Incredulity is the neglect of revealed truth or the willful refusal to как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода to it. "Heresy is the obstinate post-baptismal denial of some truth which must be believed with divine and catholic faith, or it is likewise an obstinate doubt concerning the same; apostasy is the total repudiation of как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him."11
When God reveals Himself and calls him, man cannot fully respond to the divine love by his own powers.
He must hope that God will give him the capacity to love Him in return and to act in conformity with the commandments of charity. Hope is the confident expectation of divine blessing and the beatific vision of God; it is also the fear of offending God's love and of incurring punishment.
The first commandment is also concerned with sins against hope, namely, despair and presumption:
By despair, man ceases to hope for his personal salvation from God, for help in attaining it or for the forgiveness of his sins. Despair is contrary to God's goodness, to his justice - for the Lord is faithful to his promises - and to his mercy.
There are two kinds of presumption. Either man presumes upon his own capacities, как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода to be able to save himself without help from on high), or he presumes upon God's almighty power or his mercy (hoping to obtain his forgiveness without conversion and glory without merit).
Faith in God's love encompasses the call and the obligation to respond with sincere love to divine charity. The first commandment enjoins us to love God above everything and all creatures for him and because of him.12
One can sin against God's love in various ways:
- indifference neglects как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода refuses to reflect on divine charity; it fails to consider its prevenient goodness and denies its power.
- ingratitude fails or refuses to acknowledge divine charity and to return him как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода for love.
- lukewarmness is hesitation как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода negligence in responding to divine love; it can imply refusal to give oneself over to the prompting of charity.
- acedia or spiritual sloth goes so far as to refuse the joy that comes from God and to be repelled by divine goodness.
- hatred of God comes from pride. It как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода contrary to love of God, whose goodness it denies, and whom it presumes to curse as the one who forbids sins and inflicts punishments.
II. "HIM ONLY SHALL YOU SERVE"
The theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity inform and give life to the moral virtues. Thus charity leads us to render to God what we as creatures owe him in all justice. The virtue of religion disposes us to have this attitude.
Как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода is как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода first act of the virtue of religion.
To adore God is to acknowledge him as God, as the Creator and Savior, the Lord and Master of everything that exists, as infinite and merciful Как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода. "You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve," says Jesus, citing Deuteronomy.13
To adore God is to acknowledge, in respect and absolute submission, the "nothingness of the creature" who would not exist but for God.
To adore God is to praise and exalt him and to как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода oneself, as Mary did in the Magnificat, confessing with gratitude that he has done great things and holy is his name.14 The worship of the one God sets man free from turning in on himself, from the slavery of sin and the idolatry of the world.
The acts of faith, hope, and charity как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода by the first commandment are accomplished in prayer.
Lifting up the mind toward God is an expression of our adoration of God: prayer of praise and thanksgiving, intercession and petition. Prayer is an indispensable как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода for being able to obey God's commandments. "[We] ought как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода to pray and not lose heart."15
It is right to offer sacrifice to God as a sign of adoration and gratitude, supplication and communion: "Every action done so as to cling to God in communion of holiness, and thus achieve blessedness, is a true sacrifice."16
Outward sacrifice, to be genuine, must be the как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода of spiritual sacrifice: "The sacrifice acceptable to God is a broken spirit.
. . . "17 The prophets как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода the Old Covenant often denounced sacrifices that were not from the heart or not coupled with love of neighbor.18 Jesus recalls the words of the prophet Hosea: "I desire mercy, как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода not sacrifice."19 The only как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода sacrifice is the one that Christ offered on the cross as a total offering to the Father's love and for our salvation.20 By uniting ourselves with his sacrifice we can make our lives a sacrifice to God.
Promises and vows
In many circumstances, the Christian is called to make promises to God. Baptism and Confirmation, Matrimony and Holy Orders always entail promises. Out of personal devotion, the Christian may also promise to God this action, как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода prayer, this alms-giving, that pilgrimage, and so forth.
Fidelity to promises made to God is a sign of the respect owed to the divine majesty and of love for a faithful God.
"A vow is a deliberate and free promise made to God concerning a possible and better good which must be fulfilled by reason of the virtue of religion,"21 A vow is an act of devotion in which the Christian dedicates himself to God or promises him some good work.
By fulfilling his vows he renders to God what has been promised and consecrated to Him. The Acts of the Apostles shows us St. Paul concerned to fulfill the vows he had made.22
The Church recognizes an exemplary value in the vows to practice the evangelical counsels:23
- Mother Church rejoices that she has within herself many men and women who pursue the Savior's self-emptying more closely and show it forth more clearly, by undertaking poverty with the freedom of the children of God, and renouncing their own will: they submit themselves to man for the sake of God, thus going beyond what is of precept in the matter of perfection, so as to conform themselves more fully to the obedient Christ.24
The Church can, in certain cases and for proportionate reasons, dispense from vows and promises25
The social duty of religion and the right to religious freedom
"All men are bound to seek the truth, especially in what concerns God and his Church, and to embrace it and hold on to it as they come to know it."26 This duty derives from "the very dignity of the human person."27 It does not contradict a "sincere respect" for different religions which frequently "reflect a ray of that truth which enlightens all men,"28 nor the requirement of charity, which urges Christians "to treat with love, prudence and patience those who are in error or ignorance with regard to the faith."29
The duty of offering God genuine worship concerns man both individually and socially.
This is "the traditional Catholic teaching on the moral duty of individuals and societies toward the true religion and the one Church of Christ."30 By constantly evangelizing men, the Church works toward enabling them "to infuse the Christian spirit into the mentality and mores, laws and structures of the communities in which [they] live."31 The social duty of Christians is to respect and awaken in each man the love of the true and the good.
It requires them to make known the worship of the one true religion which subsists in the Catholic and apostolic Church.32 Christians are called to be the light of the world.
Thus, the Church shows forth the kingship of Christ over all creation and in particular over human societies.33
"Nobody may be forced to act against his convictions, nor is anyone to be restrained как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода acting in accordance with his conscience in religious matters in private or in public, alone or in association with others, within due limits."34 This right is based on the very nature of the human person, whose dignity enables him freely to assent to the divine truth which transcends the temporal order.
For this reason it "continues to exist even in those who do not live up to their obligation of seeking the truth and adhering to it."35
"If because of the circumstances of a particular people special civil recognition is given to one religious community in the constitutional organization of a state, the right of all citizens and religious communities to religious freedom must be recognized and respected as well."36
The right to religious liberty is neither a moral license to adhere to error, nor a supposed right to error,37 but rather a natural right of the human person to civil liberty, i.e., immunity, within just limits, from external constraint in religious matters by political authorities.
This natural right ought to be acknowledged in the juridical order of society in such a way that it constitutes a civil right.38
The right to religious liberty can of itself be neither unlimited nor limited only by a "public order" conceived in a positivist or naturalist manner.39 The "due limits" which как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода inherent in it must be determined for each social situation by political prudence, according to the requirements of the как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода good, and ratified by the civil authority in accordance with "legal principles which are in conformity with the objective moral order."40
"YOU SHALL HAVE NO OTHER GODS BEFORE ME"
The first commandment forbids honoring gods other than the one Lord who has revealed himself to his people. It proscribes superstition and irreligion. Superstition in some sense represents a perverse excess of religion; irreligion is the vice contrary by defect to the virtue of religion.
Superstition is the deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, e.g., when one attributes an importance in some way magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand, is to fall into superstition.41
The first commandment condemns polytheism.
It requires man neither to believe in, nor to venerate, other divinities than the one true God. Scripture constantly recalls this rejection of "idols, [of] silver and gold, the work of men's hands. They have mouths, but do not speak; eyes, but do not see." These empty idols make their worshippers empty: "Those who make them are like them; so are all who trust in them."42 God, however, is the "living God"43 who gives life and intervenes in history.
Idolatry not only refers to false pagan worship. It remains a constant temptation to faith. Idolatry consists in divinizing what is not God.
Man commits idolatry whenever he honors and reveres a creature in place of God, whether this be gods or demons (for example, satanism), power, pleasure, race, ancestors, the state, money, etc. Jesus says, "You cannot serve God and mammon."44 Many martyrs died for not adoring "the Beast"45 refusing even to simulate such worship. Idolatry rejects the unique Lordship of God; it is therefore incompatible with communion with God.46
Human life finds its unity in the adoration of как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода one God.
The commandment to worship the Lord alone integrates man and saves him from an endless disintegration. Idolatry is a perversion of man's innate religious sense. An idolater is someone who "transfers his indestructible notion of God to anything other than God."47
Divination and magic
God can reveal the future to his prophets or to other saints. Still, a sound Christian attitude consists in putting oneself confidently into the hands of Providence for whatever concerns the future, and giving up all unhealthy curiosity about it.
Improvidence, however, can constitute a lack of responsibility.
All forms of divination are to be rejected: recourse to Satan or demons, conjuring up the dead or other practices falsely supposed to "unveil" the future.48 Consulting horoscopes, astrology, palm reading, interpretation of omens and lots, the phenomena of clairvoyance, and recourse to mediums all conceal a desire for power over time, history, and, in the last analysis, other human beings, as well as a wish to conciliate hidden powers.
They contradict the honor, respect, and loving fear that we owe to God alone.
All practices of magic or sorcery, by which one attempts to tame occult powers, so as to place them at one's service and have a supernatural power over others - even if this were for the sake of restoring their health - are gravely contrary to the virtue of religion.
These practices are even more to be condemned when accompanied by the intention of harming someone, or when they have recourse to the intervention of demons. Wearing charms is also как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода. Spiritism often implies divination or magical practices; the Church for her part warns the faithful against it.
Recourse to so-called traditional cures does not justify either the invocation of evil powers or the exploitation of another's credulity.
God's first как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода condemns the main sins of irreligion: tempting God, in words or deeds, sacrilege, and simony.
Tempting God consists in putting his goodness and almighty power to the test by word or deed. Thus Satan tried to induce Jesus to throw himself down from the Temple and, by this gesture, force God to act.49 Jesus opposed Satan with the word of God: "You shall not put the LORD your God to the test."50 The challenge contained in such tempting of God wounds the respect and trust we owe our Creator and Lord.
It always harbors doubt about his love, his providence, and his power.51
Sacrilege consists in profaning or treating unworthily the sacraments and other liturgical actions, as well as persons, things, or places consecrated to God. Sacrilege is a grave sin especially when committed against the Eucharist, for как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода this sacrament the true Body of Christ is made substantially present for us.52
Simony is defined as the buying or selling of spiritual things.53 To Simon the magician, who wanted to buy the spiritual power he saw at work in как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода apostles, St.
Peter responded: "Your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain God's gift with money!"54 Peter thus held to the words of Jesus: "You received without pay, give without pay."55 It is impossible to appropriate to oneself spiritual goods and behave toward them as their owner or master, for they have their source in God. One can receive them only from him, without payment.
The minister should ask nothing for the administration of the sacraments beyond the как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода defined by the competent authority, always being как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода that the needy are not deprived of the help of the sacraments because of their poverty."56 The competent authority determines these "offerings" in accordance with the principle that the Christian people ought to contribute to the support of the Church's ministers.
"The laborer deserves his food."57
"Many . . . of our contemporaries either do not at all perceive, or explicitly reject, this intimate and vital bond of man to God. Atheism must therefore be regarded as one of the most serious problems of our time."58
The name "atheism" covers many very different phenomena.
One common form is the practical materialism which restricts its needs and aspirations to space and time. Atheistic humanism falsely considers man to be "an end to himself, and the sole maker, with supreme control, of his own history."59 Another form of contemporary atheism looks for the liberation of man through economic and social liberation.
"It holds that religion, of its very nature, thwarts such emancipation by raising man's hopes in a future life, thus both deceiving him and discouraging him from working for a better form of life on earth."60
Since it rejects or denies the existence of God, atheism is a sin against the virtue of religion.61 The imputability of this offense can be significantly diminished in virtue of the intentions and the circumstances. "Believers can have more than a little to do with the rise of atheism.
To the extent that they are careless about their instruction in the faith, or present its teaching falsely, or even fail in their religious, moral, or social life, they must be said to conceal rather than как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода reveal the true nature of God как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода of religion."62
Atheism is often based on a false conception of human autonomy, exaggerated to the point of refusing any dependence on God.63 Yet, "to acknowledge God is in no way to oppose the dignity of man, since such dignity is grounded and brought to perfection in God.
. . . "64 "For the Church knows full well that her message is in harmony with the most secret desires of the human heart."65
Agnosticism assumes a number of forms. In certain cases the agnostic refrains from denying God; instead he postulates the existence of a transcendent being which is incapable of revealing itself, and about which nothing can be said.
In other cases, the agnostic makes no judgment about God's existence, declaring it impossible to prove, or even to affirm or deny.
Agnosticism can sometimes include a certain search for God, but it can equally express indifferentism, a flight from the ultimate question of existence, and a sluggish moral conscience.
Agnosticism is all too often equivalent to practical atheism.
*IV. "YOU SHALL NOT MAKE FOR YOURSELF A GRAVEN IMAGE . . .">
The divine injunction included the prohibition of every representation of God by the hand of man. Deuteronomy explains: "Since you saw no form on the day that the Lord spoke to you at Horeb out of the midst of the fire, beware lest you act corruptly by making a graven image for yourselves, in the form of any figure.
. . . "66 It is the absolutely transcendent God who revealed himself to Israel. "He is the all," but at the same time "he is greater than all his works."67 He is "the author of beauty."68
Nevertheless, already in the Old Testament, God ordained как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода permitted the making of images that pointed symbolically toward salvation by the incarnate Word: so it was with the bronze serpent, the ark of the covenant, and the cherubim.69
Basing itself on the mystery of the incarnate Word, the seventh ecumenical council at Nicaea () justified against the iconoclasts the veneration of icons - of Christ, but also of the Mother of God, the angels, and all the как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода.
By becoming incarnate, the Son of God introduced a new "economy" of images.
The Christian veneration of images is not contrary to the first commandment which proscribes idols.
Indeed, "the honor rendered to an image passes to its prototype," and "whoever venerates an image venerates the person portrayed in it."70 The honor paid to sacred images is a "respectful veneration," not the adoration due to God alone:
- Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God incarnate.
The movement toward the image does not terminate in it as image, but tends toward that whose image it is.71
"You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all your strength" (Deut ).
The first commandment summons man to believe in God, to hope in him, and to love him above all else.
"You shall worship the Lord your God" (Mt ). Adoring God, praying to him, offering him the worship that belongs to him, fulfilling the promises and vows made to him are acts of the virtue of как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода which fall under obedience to the first commandment.
The duty to offer God authentic worship concerns man both as an individual and as a social being.
"Men of the present day want to profess their religion freely in private and in public" (DH 15).
Superstition is a departure from the worship that we give to the true God. It is manifested in idolatry, as well as in various forms of divination and magic.
Tempting God in words как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода deeds, sacrilege, and simony are sins of irreligion forbidden by the first commandment.
Since it rejects or denies the existence of God, atheism is a sin against the first commandment.
The veneration of sacred images is based on the mystery of the Incarnation of the Word of God. It is not contrary to the first commandment.
3 Ex ; cf.
6 Cf. Ex ;
7 St. Justin, Dial. cum Tryphone Judaeo 11,1:PG 6,
8 Roman Catechism 3,2,4.
9 Rom ;
10 Cf. Rom
11 CIC, can. emphasis added.
12 Cf. Deut
13 Lk ; Cf. Deut
14 Cf. Lk
16 St. Augustine, De civ Dei 10,6:PL 41,
18 Cf. Am ; Isa
19 Mt ; ; Cf. Hos
21 CIC, can. § 1.
22 Cf. Acts ;
23 Cf. CIC, can.
24 LG 42 § 2.
25 Cf. CIC, cann. ;
26 DH 1 § 2.
27 DH 2 § 1.
как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода NA 2 § 2.
29 DH 14 § 4.
30 DH 1 § 3.
31 AA 13 § 1.
32 Cf. DH 1.
33 Cf. AA 13; Leo XIII, Immortale Dei 3,17; Pius Как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода, Quas primas 8,
34 DH 2 § 1.
35 DH 2 § 2.
36 DH 6 § 3.
Leo XIII, Libertas praestantissimum 18; Pius XII AAS ,
38 Cf. DH 2.
39 Cf. Pius VI, Quod aliquantum () 10; Pius IX, Quanta cura как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода 40 DH 7 § 3.
41 Cf. Mt
42 Ps8; cf. Isa ; Jer ; Dan ; Bar 6; Wis
43 Josh ; Ps ; etc.
46 Cf. Gal ; Eph
47 Origen, Contra Celsum 2,PG 11,
48 Cf. Deut ; Jer
49 Cf. Lk
51 Cf. 1 Cor ; Ex ; Ps
52 Cf. CIC, cann. ;
55 Mt ; cf. already Isa
56 CIC, can.
57 Mt ; cf. Lk ; 2 Cor ; 1 Tim
58 GS 19 § 1.
59 GS 20 § 2.
60 GS 20 § 2.
61 Cf. Rom
62 GS 19 § 3.
63 Cf. GS 20 § 1.
64 GS 21 § 3.
65 GS 21 § 7.
69 Cf. Num ; Wis ; Jn ; Ex ; 1 Kings ;
Basil, De Spiritu Sancto 18,PG 32,C; Council of Nicaea II: DS ; как правильно соединитьпровада на2101заднего хода. Council of Trent: DS ; Vatican Council II: SC ; LG
71 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,81,3 ad 3.
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